In this article several correlations between physical development and its influence on the medical vision of disease will be presented.

Over the centuries very simple ideas of the concept of disease have been present; some are still today revisited in the attempt of explaining the complexity of Man as a Body-Mind-Spirit Entity and of placing him within the parameters of physics.

Although from a strictly technical point of view, this article intends to take the reader through the evolution of these theories in a simple and slow way.


Western medicine [History of Western Medicine // www.mic.ki.se/West]
in its initial phase (Mediterranean basin area) was a theurgic medicine in as much as disease was considered a “divine castigation” and to heal a divine intervention was necessary.

With the passing of the centuries Medicine grew away from Religion more and more until the affirmation of Rational Medicine through Hippocrates; he was the first to define a clear line between magic and rationality.

The base concept of Rational Medicine is the denial of divine intervention in disease, the latter being attributed uniquely to a malfunction of the organism.

Among the first Schools which opened in Greece and in Magna Greece, the most important was that of Pythagoras in which the doctor-healers were also philosophers.

Empedocles, 429-432 A.C. - philosopher and follower of this train of thought, drew up a physical system in which the Universe is made up of 4 fundamental elements:
fire – air – water – earth.
Man is seen as a Microcosm composed of these four elements, whereas disease derives from the prevalence of one of the elements over the others.

Hippocrates of Kos (460-377 A.C.)

the greatest doctor of the antique ages, in his writings – The Body Hippocrates – he elaborates the Humoral Theory of disease, according to which there are 4 humors produced by the body; disease is caused by an unbalance of these humors, influenced by external forces.

Man is always at the centre of the microcosmic system – a holistic vision – and the scope of medicine is to bring harmony back to the organism.

The 4 humours phlegm
(nasal mucous) bile (biliary secretions)
blood                 black bile (stomach secretions)
are connected to the 4 elements:
water/phlegm – fire/bile – earth/black bile – air/blood
and extended further to connect with the 4 seasons:
1-phlegm/winter 2- bile/summer 3-black bile/autumn 4- blood/spring.

Galen of Pergamo ( 129 – 200 D.C. ) [ // pacs.unica.it/biblio/lesson 1.htm ]
[ Courses.ed.asu edu/horan/ced522 readings/galen/dreams/galenbiohtm ]
[ Eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gale www.lamp.ac.uk/ noi medicine/ galen.htm ]
[ www.udayton.edu/ hume/Galen/galen.htm ]
who lived 6 centuries after Hippocrates and was the greatest physician of the Roman Empire, introduced new concepts to the Theory of the Humors, enlarging the theory and connecting it to the psychological world of man.
He understood the fundamental importance of the organs in their primary role of producing the humors themselves.
He affirmed that these humors, deriving from the organs, are connected to 4 psychological temperaments. This was practically the first attempt of synthesis for a vision of the Human Being in a single body-mind.

1. PHLEGMATIC indolent ( phlegm ) [ sluggish type ]

2. COLLERIC fast – tensed-up ( bile ) [ hot temper type ]

3. MELANCHOLY depressed – pessimist ( black bile ) [ dejected type ]

4. HOT BLOODED optimist – pleasant to be with ( blood) [ buoyant type ]

Galen, although not Christian, in his writings affirmed that there is but one God and that the body is an instrument of the Soul.
The fundamental principal of life, according to him, is the Pneuma which takes on three differing forms depending whether it passes through the brain, the heart or the liver, comparable perhaps to the Chi in Chinese Medicine which appears in varying forms.
Galen presented this theory basing his affirmations on the evidence of his practical observations, which also included the psychological side of the Person. The theory, recuperated and divulged by Christians, was followed up to the renaissance period when the first observations of dissected corpses gave way to a mass of information which no longer matched Galen’s theory.

This theory lost credibility totally only in the 19th century with the introduction by the German Virchow of his Cell Theory of Disease. I personally believe that this point of view has caused us to lose sight of the psychosomatic unit of man for a more organicist outlook of disease.

The cause of manifestation of pathologies was put down exclusively to external factors (virus-microbes) up to complete exclusion of the influence of the mind as a co-creator of disease. Only in the last decades the idea that man is the creator of his disease is again making headway, and that it is therefore important for him to examine his psychic sphere to free the body of its torments.

This “awakening” to the psychosomatic unity has come about thanks to the rapid growth of communication systems during the last century which enabled a diffusion, an exchange of ideas between the Western and the Oriental Hemispheres which has inevitably influenced the vision of Medicine and of Man in his entirety.

In this phenomena I see an initial prevailing of the Western theory over the Oriental one, whilst I define the evolution of Alternative Medicine (now better called Complementary Medicine) as a slow affirmation of a knowledge that 1, includes an energetic vision of man, and 2, attests the supremacy of the body-mind unit over a materialistic vision of life.

Unfortunately with the emphasis sustained by Traditional Modern Medicine of anatomy, genetics and biochemistry, many sectors of complimentary medicine have struggled to make headway and still continue to be shunned by traditional medicine.
A typical example of this can be seen in Acupuncture and its implicit bio-energetic theory of the human body.


In the Oriental Hemisphere [ www.index-china.com/index/english/TCM-s.html ]
[ //www.planetherbs.com/articles/psych_tcm.html ] [qi-journal.com/tcm.asp ]
[www.healthy.net/scr/article,asp?ID=1087 ] http://nccam.nih.gov/health/acupuncture/#def ]

and above all in China, for over 5 thousand years a system of empirical information on the human body has been accumulating, which has given rise to a medical science governed by the observations mentioned above, both in theory and in practice, and which includes:

1- Acupuncture
2- Chinese medicine
3- Pharmacology/medicinal herbs
4- massages / qigong

The whole medical system [ synthetically called TCM ], documented in China from the 3rd century A.C, is based on the fundamental concept that the human body is subject to vital energy called qi or chi, which circulates in the meridians which in turn influence
the various organs and their functions.

This energy presumably regulates the spiritual – mental – emotional – physical balance of each person and is influenced by the opposing forces of YIN (negative energy) and YANG (positive energy)
This theory affirm concepts as

· QI ( energy of varying forms: nutrition qi / true qi /central qi)

· YIN / YANG ( female -masculine polarity )

· 5 ELEMENTS ( wood - fire - earth - metal - water)

· THE MERIDIANS ( energetic channels of the body )

Disease is put down to an unbalance or an interruption of the flow of energy, of chi and unbalance in the yin or in the yang.
The causes can be:

1- external [ wind – hot/cold – humidity/dryness etc. ]

2- internal [ 7 emotions: anger– sadness – fear – torment – joy – shock ]
along with a weak constitution/excessive activity/bad diet/traumas/poisons etc.

The most recent research regarding a scientific demonstration of this are based on a system of electrodermic screening according to the Voll method. With the growing knowledge of quantum physics, it is my belief that in a short time it will be possible to reach more, irrefutable certainties regarding this discipline.

For Oriental Medicine the connection between


is indissoluble in that a spiritual or moral function which is separable from the organs themselves does not exist.
Whilst Western Medicine sustains that the emotions have a secondary influence on the organs (of an exciting nature) TCM sees emotions as an integral and inseparable part of the functional sphere of the internal organs.

In his book “Fundamentals of Acupuncture” Giovanni Maciocia correlates the 5 full organs to their relative emotions:

· joy – heart
· fear – kidneys
· anger – liver
· rumination – spleen
· sadness – lungs

and in turn the 5 full organs are correlated to the 5 hollow organs and to the
5 elements of the Earth

1- heart / small intestine --> FIRE
2- liver / bile --> WOOD
3- kidneys / renal bladder --> WATER
4- lungs / large intestine --> METAL
5- spleen / stomach --> EARTH

can we then hazard a connection with the 4 humors proposed by Hippocrates?

water / phlegm [ lungs] ?? / kidneys
fire/ bile [ liver] ?? / heart
earth / black bile [ stomach ] ?? / stomach
air / blood ?

the connection is approximate but it is interesting to notice how the two theories are not altogether dissimilar.
The basis of this point of view is however that each of these base organs is an expression of a psycho-spiritual typology which has qualities – virtues to express.

According to Francesca Diebschlag – 1997 diebschlag@aol.com [ planetherbs.com ]
each organ carries a Virtue and potential human qualities. Eg:

Liver --> from rage to Kindness [ rage --> kindness ]
Heart --> from anxiety to Joy [ anxiety --> joy ]
Spleen --> from mistrust to Reliability [ mistrust --> reliability ]
Lungs --> from sadness to Reverence [ sadness --> reverence ]
Kidneys --> from fear to Rootedness [ fear --> rootedness ]

For Oriental Medicine therefore, a person’s temperament can be deduced from the physical symptoms of an organ which contains too much or too little energy and which can have their origin in emotional excesses. By treating the organ the emotional unease can be overcome.


[ www.new-science-theory.com/william-gilbert.html ]
[ //inventors.about.com/cs/inventorsalphabet/a/electricity.htm ]
[ www.uh.edu/engines/epi905.htm ][ eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity ]
[ www.hpwt.de/Quantene.htm ] [ www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/index.pl ]
[ //uncletaz.com/library/scimath/maxfar.html ]
[ www.cox-internet.com/hermital/book/holoprt5-1.htm or 4-3 or 4-6 ]

Reverting back to the Western World we will now take into consideration the scientific evolution of the last 4 centuries regarding energy in a broad sense, and electricity.

The father of electricity and magnetism recognized by science is William Gilbert [1544 – 1603], physician at the Elizabethan court, who in his treatise “De Magnete”- “On The Magnet”, published in 1600, resumes Copernicus’s theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun, and adds that the Earth has its own spin (rotation around its axis) of 24 hours due to its magnetism.

He connects gravity with magnetism and static electricity. He talks of “effluvia” – magnetic flows – as influences that bodies can have at a distance on other bodies.

Unfortunately this theory written in Latin, was not widely diffused and was replaced by the theory of Descartes – 1596 – 1650 – who was above all a logic thinker and gave less importance to experimental data in his explanations of his theory of the universe.
He affirms that the Universe is made only by matter and nothing else.
He admits that the signals = effluvia are exclusively material particles which mechanically activate the sensory organs [cause (stimulus) ? effect].
He divides the world into RES MENS and RES EXTENSA: things of the mind and things-objects extended into space; he categorizes the material world as objects.

Descarte’s ideas were followed and amplified by Newton [1642-1727], an excellent mathematician and physician, who applied the scientific methodology (only that which can be reproduced several times giving the same result can be considered scientific) to try and explain the universe and its laws. He emphasized a Universe composed of objects in movement, separated from one another.

Therefore modern traditional medical science springs as a consequence of similar ideas: it considers Man made only of matter – as a very sophisticated machine to which the principal of “cause --> effect” can be applied, through which everything that happens in Man can be explained in a mechanical way. The human body is made up of matter alone and the concept of energy is barely considered.

This electro-magnetic mechanical theory was accepted by physicians for over two centuries. Despite experiments on the bioelectricity of the human body carried out by Galvani and Volta, no importance was given to the hypothesis that bodies can influence one another at a distance through energetic fluxes which are not visible to the naked eye.

Science has influenced Medicine confirming the idea that disease can be traced back to precise external causes: from bacteria to viruses to chemical poisons which generate a genetic mutation. In short, only an external influence on the human body can change its state of psycho-physical well being.

In the 19th century with the arrival of Faraday’s (theory of fields) and Maxwell’s (electromagnetic theory of waves) ideas, a new era began – that of the science that admits the existence of energy infinitely small and capable of influencing material bodies from a distance.
Electricity is connected to magnetism (Oersted) and concepts such as energetic fields present in the ether are introduced to explain the behaviour of matter.

With the advent of physics of the 20th century another paradigm emerges: intensifying Maxwell’s ideas Einstein, with his theory of Relativity, sustains that light – energy – matter are all forms of equal importance, each being able to be transformed into the other. Matter reduced to its smallest component is simply energy.

Over the last 30 years progress in this field has been determined by quantum physics.
Material particles are influenced by quantum fields.

In the Quantum Universe all is energy, it always precedes matter which makes up the universe itself only at 2% (98% of the universe is empty). The only difference between physical and ethereal matter is in the electromagnetic frequency at which it vibrates or resonates.

In the world of quantum physics all that is life (organic and inorganic) is conceived as a vast network of energetic fields all working together: on the one hand terribly complex and intricate – on the other easily accessible and pliable.

When we apply these ideas to the human body we must consider it formed of a complex network of energetic-electromagnetic waves which mold the cells, the tissue of the physical body changing it from one moment to the next.
This electromagnetic field which permeates the whole physical body, has always been defined “Aura” by the esoteric world. The relative centres of energy which emit E-M frequencies are called Chakras (from the Sanskrit vortex).
We can notice from this that a certain, ancient culture, passed secretly from generation to generation in many societies, is now corroborated by quantum science.


[ //insti.physics.sunysb.edu/ siegel/mine.html ] [ www.energetic-medicine.net ]
[ www.quantumwellnesscenter.com/energetic-medicine.html ]
[ www.namaste-unlimited.com/static/vibrationalmedicine ]

When we speak of quantum physics we have entered the world of the infinitely small which goes far beyond the vision of the atom and its orbiting electrons.

Quantum physics, characterised by the properties of the subatomic particles, affirms that energy is not continuous but is presented in forms of packets or quantums.

In this world the logical laws of traditional physics are forgotten and the existence of the following are accepted:

1- A dual role of energy which can manifest itself as a WAVE or as a PARTICLE (electron or photon)
2- The principal of indetermination of Heisemberg ( electrons can be found at several levels which are never predictable )
3- NOTHING IS REAL until someone observes ( Schroedinger’s cat),
or rather reality becomes reality only in the presence of an observer who observes.
4- Interdependence of SPACE-TIME (journeys in TIME) the photon that travels at the speed of light does not know past or future (no locality) – at a subatomic level localization ceases to exist – all is united.
6- GUT THEORY ( grand-unified-theory ) with its 4 fundamental forces
Strong Nuclear – Weak Nuclear – Electromagnetic – Gravity where matter has 3 basic properties: Charge --> electromagnetism --> time (frequency effect )
Mass --> gravitation --> distance (distance effect )
Spin --> torsion field --> nothing ? out of time and space?

Science, according to Siegel, can be considered as the study of objects and can be classified going down from the largest to the smallest.
Eg. Man in:
sociology --> biology --> cytology --> bacteriology --> chemistry --> atomic physics -->
nuclear physics --> high energy physics ( partons = high energy physics )
and it can be said that the Universe in its simplest composition is made up of PARTONS which can be shown in high energy physics.

The Universe at the moment of the BIG BANG was composed of partons; with the cooling caused by the explosion, the partons condense into particles and PLASMA is formed ( plasma is then condensed and forms gas atoms etc. ) from which the 4 stages of Matter are originated ( as for the ancient Greeks )


We have returned to a vision of the world according to many very ancient ideas but which match the visions of the most advanced physics; how does the vision of medicine and in particular disease influence this science?
Here we enter into the world of Vibrational or Energetic Medicine where it is sustained that the health of the body depends, at an energetic level, on the INFORMATIVE FIELDS, the so called quantum fields.

These informative fields represent ACTIVE-CREATIVE FORCES which are closely involved in the manifestation of health, that is, in the balance that feeds a person.

Dr. Peter Frazier his one of the most important theoric-practical supporter of this model and studying quantum physics he has applied his findings to the bio-informational field of the ethereal human body.

He admits the existence of the QUANTUM-ELECTRODYNAMIC body-field ( in other words the auric field and its chakras ) and has invented instruments capable of influencing the communication between the energetic systems and the biological systems of the physical body.

He has applied the physics of low energy subatomic particles, combining it with the knowledge of TCM, or better the meridians, homeopathy and herbalism.
He describes the system of the meridians as MAGNETIC CARRIERS which respond to the laws of quantum mechanics.

He has discovered integral paths, complicated mathematical circuits (sets) which apparently form outlines of the movements of subatomic particles in space.

He goes so far as to state that an alteration in the spacial composition of subatomic particles exists, which determines alterations of the information contained in them.

From the point of view of this Energetic Medicine, disease is formed from an alteration or distortion of the way in which the particles are organized in space; distortion as regards resonance rather than frequency; Frazier has given more importance to the mass than to the charge.
Healing comes about when the energetic resonance is restored to its preferred harmonic pattern.

Disease is considered a PROCESS ( not a condition which is undergone caused by external factors), a journey which provokes the question: what is happening inside me? – how can I understand it, express it and thus transform and free it?

This form of therapy tends to take the level of resonance between BODY – MIND – SPIRIT back to its preferred harmonic pattern.
It looks at Man as a complex system of electrodynamic waves with a spiritual component which can be defined as VITAL FORCE: the informative field materializes from emptiness (from the underlying Zero Point Field, an ocean of information which pervades everything that exists) – it interacts with the emptiness when it literally informs it, that is it gives a form to the matter.

Healing, in final analysis represents a journey of reacquisition of the power to rebalance oneself, to recuperate the Vital Force and to regain harmony with the the universal energetic laws.


[ www.in-ta.net/info/aesculapius ] [ www.ptypes.com/temperaments.html#kretschmer ] [ http://www.alleydog.com/links-sp/personality.asp ] http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/perscontents.html ]
[ http://medstat.med.utah.edu/kw/human_reprod/lectures/clin_radiology/#8 ]

Together with the vein of research into physics which we have considered up to this point, we must now consider the results achieved in psychology during the last century.
Remembering that physics tells us that energy brings information, the field of psychology helps us to comprehend the distorted information present in disease.

The first great idea was that of Freud (1856 – 1939): Man hides a great part of his knowledge in his subconscious sphere, practically he refuses to see areas of himself. I believe that the ancient Greeks came to the same conclusion when they wrote on the wall of the temple of Delphi: “Man – Know Thyself”.

From this viewpoint we can compare Man to an Iceberg, where the exposed part represents the EGO which believes itself alone and therefore free to go through life as it pleases with no hidden influences.
The submerged part represents the subconscious which always influences the choice we make in our everyday life.

One of the great followers of Freud was Jung (1875-1961) who stated that, apart from a personal subconscious = one’s shadow, there is also a Collective Subconscious which affects everyone, and where each of us reacts differently to the various Archetypes to be found in it.

In the attempt to classify the individual as a person from a psychological point of view Jung was the first to define different base types, eg. shy/outgoing, thinkers/instinctive, etc.; following in his footsteps Ernst Kretschmer, a German psychiatrist published, in 1925, his theory on the evidence of a connection between the physical characteristics of a person and their personality, in short physiology connected to psychology.

On the basis of the work started by Kretschmer William Sheldon, in the 50’s, proposed a classification according to the prenatal development of man.
[Prenatal Development; Germ (or Egg 21 days) Embryo (3-5 weeks) Fetus (9 months)]
After fecundation (the union of two distinct cells) a segmentation of these initial cells comes about giving rise to cells which are all alike, called undifferentiated cells (the morula stage of the embryo where the volume remains constant); finally a new stage of evolution is reached with three major cell lineages

1- Ectoderm 2- Mesoderm 3- Endoderm are formed
from which he hypothesized 3 character types :
· CEREBROTONIC ( Ectomorphic ) MIND
· SOMATIC ( Mesomorphic ) WILL
· VISCEROTONIC ( Endomorphic ) HEART

This first phase of cellular identification, extremely important from an embryo-genetic point of view, originates a series of specific, predetermined tissues and organs. From here stems the hypothesis of matching the anatomic data with the psychological data of the temperament.
I firmly believe that this classification is particularly suited to defining Human Beings. According to this hypothesis they are made up of a mental component, an emotional component and a component of will power.
This purely psychological picture can be related to anatomic data in that the ectoderm gives rise to the brain tissues, the endoderm to the gut and the mesoderm to the complex system of muscles and tendons which in turn gives rise to action. The connection between the two fields of science is decidedly rational and instinctively acceptable.

The hypothesis that I am about to present is based on the supposition that during the development of the three major cell lineages in one of the 3 sectors there is an excess of energy: from here the prevalence of all the resulting lineage of organs and systems over the others and therefore the personality of the human being.

This energetic unbalance in turn also establishes the prevalence of one of the 3 elements of the Human Being thus forming his character: a series of habits, emotional states, recurring thoughts that make up the psychological imprinting of a Person.

Thus the classification of the Human Being becomes very simple and it is equally simple from this point of view to understand the Psycho-energetic Theory.

Every Person, made up of Mind – Heart – Will Power, begins life with his load of energetic unbalance (which I call the Premordial Wound) which he will carry for his entire life until he becomes aware of its presence and takes steps to correct it.

The Psycho-energetic Theory therefore, based on this premise, acts both on the energetic field (where the primary cause for the initial unbalance lies) and on the area of the psyche (where the consequences of the energetic unbalance settle). Only challenging both sectors together is it possible to regain psycho-physical well being, a stable and permanent self-healing.

This type of intervention, in my belief, is at the dawn of its existence since technical development has been so intense that medical science has been deviated and driven towards a complete dependence on the use of diagnostic instruments at the expense of an all round psycho-somatic evaluation of the afflicted person.

Reverting to Alternative/Complementary Medicine and its wealth of knowledge, it is possible to recreate a balance where Man is seen in his Totality as a Spiritual and Material Being, that is as an energetic field and a physical body.


Throughout the story of humanity there has always been a notion of a body-mind unit in which the humors emitted are the secondary physical manifestation of primary energetic states. Today we can go as far as to say that mental states (as part of the energetic field) can be more or less on the same wavelength as the physical laws which regulate the Universe.
Therefore disease is the expression of an altered syntony with these laws.

The historical evolution of knowledge of the various sectors considered here allows us to realize how our way of confronting illness and disease is changing, and to understand that “The primary task of Man is to understand where he is not in harmony with the laws of the Universe.
Assuming the responsibility of this inner search, every person can give more attention to the manifestation of disease and to the meaning that it communicates: thus the disease itself becomes a source of awakening”

We can therefore sum up the vision that man has had on the origins of disease, and collocate this vision in varying stages:

· Theory of divine origin
· Theory of humoral origin
· Theory of cellular origin
· Theory of energetic origin
· Theory of psycho-energetic origin

The cause of our illnesses was initially considered as being external to our body, then internal but governed by external agents such as bacteria, viruses, etc. [view of traditional medicine]
Finally, according to the most advanced theory, the psycho-energetic theory, the cause is placed inside an energetic field in such a way as to influence both the psyche and the physical body.

In this progression of visions I see an evolution of human awareness, a growth of self responsibility in man with regards to his existence, where the guiding principal is based on free will and certainly not on coincidences which would reduce him to the status of object.

Thanks to:
All those people who have made their knowledge available on the web, from which many of my conclusions have been drawn.
I am particularly grateful to Dr. Barbara Brennan who has educated me in the psycho-energetic method and to whom I attribute the merits of having introduced clarity of new ideas and interesting work prospects to the subject.





What do we mean by character of the person?

Usually, with the term person or personality we refer to the whole mental organization of the human being at every stage of his/her development [ from now on he will intend also she]. The term character underlies the objective aspect of the personality, its actual manife-station through a typical behavior, a constant way of reacting to the environment, so that the affective and/or volitive aspect of the personality acquires a major relevance.

Enrico Cattonaro. Enciclopedia filosofica vol.3. Milano, Bompiani, 2006, pag. 1636

In the history of psychology the term "character" [from the Greek charaktèr 'distinctive sign, print'] has been preceded by the terms temperament and constitution, because the hypothesis of a physiologic dependence of the disposition from the somotological/constitutional traits was implied (our ancestors were right!).

Today, Galimberti still states that there is a "relatively permanent configuration of an individual to which we can trace back the usual and peculiar aspects of his behavior which appear integrated both in an intra-psychic and inter-personal sense".

Umberto Galimberti. Carattere, in Psicologia. Milano, Garzanti, 1999, pag. 170.

These definitions consider the character according to a psychological perspective but they don't give an explanation why it forms. I'm going to present a possible genesis following a psychosomatic vision based on the theory of non-satisfied needs.

A baby is born with some basic needs but they are not always adequately satisfied, so a primeval wound starts a sort of painful, blocking nucleus too intense for an immature physical and psychical body that is not able to manage intense stimula. This determines a separation (a split as a survival mechanism) inside the baby between the negative external reality and his basic needs, the two parts are not connected in the psyche any longer:




To defend from these repeated painful episodes of unsatisfied needs the baby chooses to adapt to reality creating a character structure which protects him.









For example, the main need of a just born baby is to feel safe but this expectation cannot be always satisfied so he feels terror. In order not to feel such a strong emotion he defends himself by mentally fragmenting and adapts asking for total acceptance (false need), thus showing in time the character structure of the schizoid type.

Another example: the childhood experience that ensues from a distant and emotionally cold mother [a baby born after an abuse], makes the terror freeze in the body which at an adult stage results in a retreating inside one's mind and in considering himself special. Therefore such an individual will show the false need of total acceptance.

In the following stage of development, a child's fundamental need is to be nourished but, as he experiences moments of deprivation, he reacts with a lot of sadness which is compen-sated with a request of total gratification, and becoming over demanding, (false need) from which the character structure of the oral type shows itself.

For example, when a child has been separated from his mother because of her illness or sudden emergencies, he has a strong feeling of abandon. Consequently, as an adult, he faces the world completely denying his needs, exaggerating his independence while his look implores cares in the form of total gratification.

According to the theory of the psychological development of a child, after a first stage of attachment, there is one of separation from his mother which is determined by the desire to achieve more autonomy, by a wish for adventure, discovery of the world and meeting the others.

In this search for independence, a link develops with the need for recognizing him and the other people as autonomous beings, the child experiments either moments of excessive parental control or of poor recognition of his essence. In fact, in this stage of development, at about 2-3 years of age, when the child's physical boundaries are exceedingly invaded, he experience a tremendous anger because he is not able to defend from the adults invasions and he collapses. For the rest of his life, he will be looking for total freedom as a system of defence (false need for the masochist type).

In the following stage of maturation the emotional boundaries are implied: the child looks for his emotional independence but if he is not recognized for what he feels, he experiences a sensation of restlessness/mistrust which leads him, as an adult, to look for total control manipulation over the people with who he interacts (a false need for the psychopathic type).

A consequence of the pain suffered in these experiences, is that the boundaries of the child are structured in an improper way, physically in the case of the masochist type, emotionally in the case of the psychopathic character.

The masochist for example experiments a dominant mother who invades his/her body, excessively controls his/her physical functions, makes him feel guilty if he tries to leave her, prevents him from showing his anger. Consequently the only way out is to repress the emotions while showing the world the false desire of total freedom.

At the physical level the body shows a large accumulation of fat for protection from feeling his own strong emotions.


The psychopathic character originates from the presence of a seductive parent who does not recognize the child's needs but tends to satisfy his needs through the child's.

All this determines insecurity in the child because he cannot understand, does not know what may happen and learns to deny his need completely. At the end he can survive only by controlling others, exercising total power over them as the only solution in order not to feel his inner emptiness.

At the physical level the body presents an excessive development of the shoulders due to the intense control over others.


In the final stage of maturation and individualization of a person's character, which occurs around 4-5 years of age, the primary need of the child is to be recognized in his essence, appreciated and esteemed in his right value. When this does not happen the child experiences anxiety and becomes rigid. The child then compensates for the pain in an excessive way looking for total admiration from others but refusing to accept any criticism. For example, a child, who after getting through the initial stages of development and having obtained support, nutrition and autonomy, looks for physical contact with his parents.   When the child does not receives that, he feels not only rejected in his body, but even more, betrayed in his spontaneous love expression/manifestation. This pain is congealed in the heart, his muscles become rigid, he learns to be the perfect child as requested by the therefore, the child shows the world the false need of total admiration, denying his true essence thus becoming inauthentic.

During our childhood we go from one stage to another living each experience more or less intensively, so that our character eventually reveals itself as the sum of each stage in variable percentages. At the end of development an aspect predominates over the others but each of us experiences a complex wound made of these different aspects.

All these particular forms of defense, at an adult age, conglomerate, congeal in a more or less insecure character which represents an obstacle to sound inter-personal relationships as the false needs presented prevent the person from evaluating reality in a proper way.

This attitude only sharpen the desire that the others satisfy their own false needs but this produces no fulfillment. Under this entire process of trying to get satisfied by others old unmet needs, is present a strong (negative) belief that inner pain can be eliminated only if we could obtain what we did not receive in childhood, but this can never happen, of course!!!

What is most important to understand is that needs are changing from one period to another in our life, so if at an adult age we are reaching to receive a perfect nourish-ment from another human being, we will be realizing that this act is not bringing real fulfillment! What we need to comprehend is that the pain of unfulfilled needs can be healed only by our selves, taking full responsibility for our inner growth.

Therefore it is necessary to find a right balance between:

the need for being accepted and the possibility of being rejected



the search for fulfillment connected with the will to recognize the needs of the other



the need for contact and freedom without going into excessive dependence on others



the need for approval and disapproval without undervaluing one's own initiative



the need for appreciation of one's own uniqueness with the ability to receive some criticism from the others



The inner work for the awareness of one's own real needs, at an adult age, is very important because it allows one to be able to satisfy them by personally taking care of what eventually gives security and happiness, thus enabling one to get rid of false dependencies.

When we become adults and responsible for our own necessities, we can run into the mistake of believing that the goal in life is to satisfy the false need while the search for the real needs is not undertaken. And, what more, we blame our parents for what we are, but it is useless to blame our parents as they have been as wounded as we have.

No human being is perfect and the task of bringing up a baby is really hard and it is still under study. On the contrary, if we follow the concept of self-responsibility for our own behaviors we learn to understand what is hidden inside us, which is a fundamental step to healing the psychological pain present in our bodies.

The quest of distinguishing real needs from false needs will free us!

The origin of this psychosomatic vision of the evolution of the character is owed to W. Reich 1897-1957, one of Freud's disciples. After a first period of strict adherence to the principles of psychoanalysis, he developed the technique of the analysis of the character through the study of the human body structure, a method which became his main instrument of therapeutic intervention on the psyche.

Practically he declared that the aspects of the character are a direct defense against the impulses removed by consciousness ( as they are painful ) which produces a manifestation of a shell , both physical and mental. According to Reich, the discovery and removal of the mental blocks could be made easier by eliminating the physical blocks, as the somatic shell corresponds to the mental shell, hence the introduction of specific physical exercises to get rid of them during a psycho-therapeutical session was introduced.

With such studies, Reich placed himself as a forerunner of  psychosomatic medicine as he started to give us an explanation of the origin of the character structure  as a defense barrier against pain. When a painful experience is removed from the mental level, this pain congealed in the muscles, thus forming a shell and shaping the whole body.

After Reich, the Core Energetics approach by J. Pierrakos, his disciple, was an outstanding step forward in the psychological field because he focused on the central nucleus of a person, the Core, rather than on the shell.

According to this therapeutic vision, “a child is born complete" in his Essence and ready to show his innate qualities of goodness, creativity and intelligence; however the repeated painful episodes he experiences compromise his ability to express freely in life. Therefore the primary task is to go back to focus on the Essence, if we want to be able to express the best we have inside us.

Also it is very important to notice how, as years go by, this psycho-physical shell establishes some repetitive behaviors (PATTERNS), which become evident through self-observation. These signals show how the wound would like to be healed and  warn consciousness about their existence and the necessity to act in order to eliminate/heal the pattern.

Centering the person on his Essence again through Core Energetics therapy, letting him understand  how he defends from pain without solving any problem (while it is possible to heal it from the roots), we send a great hope and trustful message about the possibility to change one's own character and, eventually, obtain the much desired happiness.

If we become curious about our ways of reacting to others and notice repetitive behaviours, it means that we are on the right way to discover which real underlying need we hide from our consciousness. Thus we can free the body from the weight it holds and start to live freer, happier and younger!